Dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas dan dan membangun budaya mutu yang berkelanjutan, Universitas Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai (UP) menyelenggarakan Workshop SPMI (09/09/2017) di kampus Universitas Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai yang berlokasi di kota Bangkinang. Workshop ini dihadiri oleh seluruh civitas akademika Universitas Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai. Workshop ini dihadiri oleh Dr. Ansofino, M.Si, team pengembangan penjaminan mutu Kopertis wilayah X.
Jumat, 08 September 2017
Kamis, 18 Mei 2017
USING MOVIES TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL AT THE THIRD SEMESTER OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF STKIP PAHLAWAN TUANKU TAMBUSAI RIAU
English Study Program, STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau
Mahasiswa semester III program studi PG-PAUD STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai memiliki kesulitan berbicara dengan menggunakan Bahasa Inggris. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperbaiki kemampuan mahasiswa ketika berbicara dalam Bahasa Inggris dan mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perbaikan kemampuan mahasiswa tersebut dalam berbicara dengan menggunakan Bahasa Inggris. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 22 mahasiswa semester III program studi PG-PAUD STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai. Penelitian tindakan kelas ini telah dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus dengan empat pertemuan dengan prosedur; perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan dan refleksi.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa menggunakan film dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dapat memperaiki kemampuan bicara siswa dalam Bahasa Inggris. Peningkatan nilai rata-rata siswa sesuai dengan peningkatan nilai rata-rata indikator speaking skills. Nilai rata-rata siswa sebelum penelitian adalah 60, meningkat 66.3 pada siklus 1, dan 71.4 pada siklus 2. Faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris siswa adalah materi, media, manajemen kelas, pendekatan guru, dan strategi guru didalam kelas. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada perbaikan pada kemampuan siswa dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris.
The t h i r d s e m e s t e r students o f Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau had problem in speaking E n g l i s h . The purpose of this research is to improve the students speaking skill and also to know the factors influence the students’ speaking skill. The participants of this research are 22 students of the third semester of the Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau. The research is classroom action research which was done in two cycles with four meetings. Each cycle consists of plan, action, observation, and reflection. The result of this study shows that using movies in teaching and learning English can improve the students speaking skill. Based on the data, the mean score of the students speaking skill as well as the increasing of the mean score of speaking skill indicators namely accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. The average score was 60 in pre research, 66.3 in cycle I, and 71.4 in cycle II. The factors that influenced the students’ speaking skill are material, media, classroom activity, classroom management, teacher’s approach, and teacher’s strategy. It means, there is improvement on the students’ speaking skill.
Keywords: Movies, Speaking skill.
English is a subject that needs to be acquired by the students in college. It is one of the requirements in the curriculum of college, especially in Early Childhood Education Department. The students in Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau learn English that consists of four skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The students learn English to build their knowledge and use it in communication.
One of the language skills that need to be acquired by students of Early Childhood Education Department in learning English is speaking. It plays an important role in learning the language. It helps the students to be creative in using English. They practice it to use some
expression and instructions in classroom. Speaking also supports the students to practice English in communication. Speaking enables them to be confident in speaking English. In another word, speaking is very crucial in learning English.
Choney in Kayi (2006) says that speaking is the process of building and sharing meanings through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols in variety context. In addition, Jie (1999) supported that the use of language is more important than knowing the usage of language. It is clear that speaking is one of language skill which is active in using language to share meaning or information in variety context.
In speaking process, the speaker and interlocutor emphasize on the meaning what each is saying and what they are talking. It means that every conversation has the purpose to speak with their interlocutor, on the other hand the spoken language consists of both verbal and non- verbal language to share meaning in various contexts between speaker and interlocutor. In addition, when speaker and hearer are interacting or communicating orally, each focuses on the use of the language not the usage of the language. On the other hand, communication is good when the speaker and interlocutor understand one another. They can interact with others so that they can improve their speaking because they always talk each other.
Dealing with some theoretical definition above, it can be concluded that speaking is one of productive skills, which is the ability in using language orally through sound to present information and produce ideas. Speaking skill is is a set of ability to express ideas, feeling or thoughts intelligibly; reasonably and accurately. Expressing idea for interacting with another member of community which involves many components; including pronunciation, listening, and grammar skill both in verbal and non-verbal of a variety context.
Kayi (2006) states that teaching speaking is a very important part of second language learning. The ability to communicate in a second language clearly contributes to the success of the learner in the school and success later in every phase of life. It means that English mastery is particularly essential especially speaking in the second language learning, which may result in the success of both students’ learning and students’ life in the future. In addition, Hughes (2003) mentions that the objective of teaching spoken language is to develop the speaking ability to interact successfully in that language, and also this involves comprehensions as well as production. In other words, teaching speaking aims to enhance the capability of interaction in comprehending and producing the language. It means that the purpose of teaching speaking is not only to make a student able to speak with their friend but also give them some opportunity to practice it.
Moreover, Nunan in Kayi (2006) explains that teaching speaking is teaching English as the second language for the learners in producing the English speech sounds and sound patterns, using word and sentences stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language, selecting appropriate words sentences according to the proper social setting audience, situation, and subject matter, organizing their thought in a meaningful and logical sequence, using language as a means of expressing values and judgments, and using the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses called as fluency.
In relation to the previous explanation, it is clear that the primary goal of teaching speaking English is to communicate, particularly in language production in which the use of language is emphasized rather than the usage of language. In teaching speaking, the teacher assesses the students to improve their speaking skill. Sometimes, the teacher has some types of questions and some procedures to assess the students’ ability, so the student have a variety of task to develop their speaking compete.
In this case, movies can be used as media in speaking class. According to Kneller (1971), the use of movies in teaching and learning English had been used since the two wars. It became famous in the late of 1940s. At that time, the teacher recorded their students’ activities by using video media. It was used for evaluating their learning activity, so they could find and improve their mistakes. Sometimes, they recorded a festival music and set it as a movie. He explains that movies are obtained to show a story and evaluate their achievement in teaching and learning process.
In this case, there seem no disadvantages on using movies in teaching English, because the teachers should consider the appropriate movies on their classrooms. Kusumarasdyati (2004) states that there are several considerations when using movies in classroom. First, the movies become important devices in the curriculum. Second, the movies enable to show the importance in motivating the students in acquiring skills. Third, the movies can be used because of the pedagogical values. Fourth, the movies consist of visual such as facial expressions and gestures. It is clear that a teacher should consider the advantages of movies in teaching and learning before using the movies in their class.
According to Kusumardyati (2004), there are three stages that can be used during the class by using movies; pre- viewing, whilst- viewing, and post- viewing. In pre- viewing activities, the teacher gives time for the learners to construct the appropriate schemata to help the students in comprehending the movies. It consists of some activities. The students give the name and introduce the theme of the movie and the important words, and then give the students worksheet and an answer sheet. The teacher asks the learners to read the items in the worksheet for a few a minutes to help the learners become familiar with the movies. In whilst viewing, the learners watch the movie while completing sentences based on the movie. Therefore, the students are focused on the story they watch. In post viewing, Maysarah (2010) states that there are some activities that can be done after watching the movie. The activities are poll or interview, alternatives ending, discussion, retelling story.
This research is a classroom action research which aims to explain whether movies can improve the students’ speaking skill at the third semester of Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau. Wallace (1998: 6) states that an action research is the area for developing and improving of the teachers’ ability in teaching their students. It intends to improve the students’ and the teacher’s ability. Similarly, Kemmis and Taggart (1988:5) assert that action research is a research which provides the solution and investigation of the problem in education. The terms of classroom action research describes the important characteristics of this research, such as; to use an idea in increasing knowledge or improve curriculum, teaching and learning process. The classroom action research provides some solutions in the classroom toward the problems that have been faced by the students speaking English at at the third semester in Early Childhood Education department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau.
FINDING AND DISCUSSION
This research was a classroom action research which was done at the third semester of Early Childhood Education o f STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau. It consists of two different kinds of data analysis namely quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative data is collected through tasks and tests; meanwhile the qualitative data is gotten by observation sheets, field notes and interview. This research was started on 5 April 2015– Mei 2016. It consists of two cycles which consist of four meetings in each cycle. Three meetings were conducted for doing the task and the other was used for test.
Before conducting the study, the researcher got the students’ speaking skill before using movies. Based on the data, the students’ speaking skill before using movies in speaking class was low, it could be seen that the mean score of listening
comprehension was 60. There were only 9 students got score >70.
1. The Improvement of the Students’
Speaking Skill by Using Movies
a. The First Cycle
The first cycle was conducted on 8
– 29 September 2015. This cycle consisted of four meetings, and every meeting was conducted with the collaborator. There were four stages in conducting classroom action research and they were described in this following explanation:
Before conducting the research, the researcher made some plans. The researcher prepared all the things needed for the research. Such as the teaching materials which were prepared to be used in teaching and learning activities. For the cycle 1, the instruments in gathering the data were prepared namely: task and test, observation sheets, field notes, and interview questions and students’ attendance list. Then, the researcher arranged the schedule. Next, the researcher introduced to the collaborator about the movies to be applied in teaching seaking skill for cycle 1 was prepared.
The first cycle was conducted in four meetings. The meetings were three meeting for treatments and one meeting for test. The time allocation for each meeting was 50 minutes (2 x
50 minutes). The teaching and learning process was done based on the lesson plan that had been prepared in the planning phase. After completing all of the meetings in this cycle, the researcher gave speaking test to the students.
There were three kinds of the story that had in the test. The story are “Bird Story, Sleeping Beauty, Story of Thumbelina, and True Friend. Based on the test, the mean score in cycle 1 is 66.3, it was categorized into low. For further descriptions, the researcher also included average of speaking skill in each meeting. The score are presented in the following graph: Graph 1. The Students’ average score in cycle 1
In this graph, the improvement of students’ speaking skill in each meeting can be clearly seen. The exercise score of the students started on 62 in the first meeting, 64 in second meeting, 66 in the three meeting. Finally, in the test, the average score of students’ speaking skill could reach 66.3. The graph indicated that the students’ speaking skill decreased on the second meeting, but it was better in other meeting in cycle one. It means that more treatment in cycle two was needed to improve the students’ speaking ability.
At this session, the collaborator took a note on the observation sheets and wrote important information in the field note based on the situation in the classroom. She sat at the back of the students and saw the classroom activities. She noted everything that found during teaching and learning activities, such as the media, material, classroom activities, classroom management, teacher’s strategy and teacher approach. The result of the observation in cycle one as follow:
In observation sheets and field notes, the collaborator took notes. It showed that the material was not only narrative. The students also learnt vocabularies; time words, action verbs, and noun groups. They discussed the vocabularies by guessing the meaning of those words together before watching the movies in teaching speaking skill. But the teacher did not teach any grammar in the class. The teacher used movies entitled Bird Story, Sleeping Beauty,
Story of Thumbelina, and True Friend.
The observation sheets also explained some factors why the application of movies in teaching speaking by using movies did not run well. The teacher’s control also needed in order to achieve the purpose during the teaching and learning process. During the collaborator’s observation, the teacher had done the activities based on the lesson plan as well. The students focused when watching the movies because while watching the movies, they completed the sentences. But not all activities gave benefit to the students. After watching the movies, the teacher asked the students to give their opinion. Some students did not join this activity and the class seemed to be crowded, they did not pay attention with their friend’s opinion. Shortly, the teacher could not manage the class well after watching the movie.
The application of movies in the fourth meeting helped the students focusing in learning English by using movies. But based on the observation that was done by the collaborator, the teacher got difficulty when controlling the class. The class was crowded when the teacher asked the students to give opinion and comment. It was proved that there were some students gave opinion and no student gave comment. Some students made noisy when their friend gave opinion.
In cycle 1, using movies gave contribution in improving the students speaking skill. The improvement was not successful because it didn’t pass the standard minimum score. The progress of the improvement was seen clearly through the students score from the result of the tasks and test. Then, observation sheet, field notes, and interview could explain why there was an improvement.
Graph 2: The comparison of the students’ average on pre research and cycle 1.
c) The researcher gave more vocabularies to help the students in understanding the story easily.
b. The Second Cycle
Based on the reflection in the cycle 1, there were still found some problems related to the students’ speaking skill. Those problems had to be solved, so that, the second cycle had to be continued in the following reasons; the first reason was the improvement that the teacher got in the first cycle was not satisfied yet.
Based on the graph above, it could be concluded the students’ speaking is still low. In this case, there was an improvement of the students score comparing with the pre research. There were some notes that considered by the researcher in using movies in teaching English at the third semester of Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau. There were few students got good score. The class average score did not achieve the standard minimum of achievement.
Based on the observation, the teacher taught the students based on the lesson plan. However, the material was still difficult for the students. In addition, based on the interview, the students were not accustomed to listen to English conversation. It was difficult for them because the people in the movie speak fast. There were some improvements needed to be done by the researcher at first cycle. Therefore, some improvement applied in the cycle II. The results of the reflection in the first cycle that was implemented at the second cycle are in the following:
a) The researcher changed the classroom activity; in the first cycle, the students gave their opinion and comment in the discussion, but in the next cycle, each student got opportunity to answer the questions in exercise 2 and discussed it together.
b) The researcher taught simple past tense in the class to help them in expressing the sentences.
To solve the students’ problems which were found in the first cycle, the planning was set up again in order to get the speaking skill which could reach the minimum criteria of achievement. The researcher prepared some new movies entitle dog and the cook, the little mermaid, the tortoise and the eagle, Cinderella, Goldilocks and the three bears, The researcher revised the lessons plan for the cycle 2, the researcher revised the learning activities in cycle 2. There were four meetings included test. The researcher gave different movie that was learned by the students in the second cycle. Then, the researcher gave speaking test at the end of the second cycle.
The second cycle was conducted on
13 October - 3 November 2015. The reseacher was teaching in classroom by using movies. The teaching and learning process was done based on the lesson plan that had been prepared in the planning step. On this action, the collaborator came to the class and did observation for each meeting. She observed and noted everything she found during teaching and learning activities by using movies. Based on the data, the researcherdescribed the average score on each meeting. The score are presented in the following graph:
Graph 3: The comparison of the
students’ average on each meeting of cycle 2
The graph above contains the average score of the students’ skill for each meeting in cycle 2. In this graph, the improvement of students’ speaking skill in each meeting can be clearly seen. Based on the information, the students’ speaking skill was improved in the cycle two. It can be concluded based on the students’ score in each meeting. The score started on 66 in the first meeting, 70.2 in second meeting,
70.4 in the third meeting. Finally, in test cycle 2 was 71.4. It achieved the standard minimum. The score indicated that there was improvement on the students’ speaking skill by using movies.
The data from cycle 1 and cycle 2 showed the improvement of the students speaking skill. The students’ skill in speaking skill could succesfully improved through this media. In detail, the improvement can be seen in the following graph:
Graph 4: The comparison of the
students’ average on cycle 2, cycle 1, and pre research.
After analyzing the data which was taken from the test on the second cycle, it shows that the students’ speaking skill got improvement. It was 71.4. The result of the test has passed the standard minimum score. As mentioned before, the minimum standard subject for English is 70. In sum, the use of movies as media could improve the students’ speaking skill at at the third semester of Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau.
In observation sheets and field notes, it showed that the students learnt narrative, vocabularies; time words, action verbs, and noun groups, and simple past tense. They discussed the vocabularies by guessing the meaning of those words together; the students learnt simple past tense before watching the movie. In learning the grammar, the teacher gave five sentences in English. The students were asked to translate them into their mother tongue. Then, the teacher and students discussed the meaning of the verbs in the sentences. After that, the students were asked to tell which of the sentences uses the simple past tense.
The students enjoyed in the class because the movie has entertainment and education for the learners. The students got moral value in every story they watched. The students were enthusiasm when learning by using movies. The activities in teaching and learning narratives during the application of movies influenced the students’speaking skill. At the first step, the teacher started the class; the students gave good responses when the teacher opened the class. Then, the students and the teacher discussed the meaning some vocabularies based on the story. The students watched the movies while doing the exercise. The students paid attention in watching the movies.
Then, the observation sheets also explained some factors why the application of movies in teaching speaking ran well. The teacher’s control also needed in order to achieve the purpose during the teaching and learning process. During the collaborator’s observation, the teacher had done the activities based on the lesson plan as well. The students focused when watching the movies because while watching the movies, they completed the sentences. After watching the movies, they discussed the story by answering the questions on exercise while discussing the story together. The students paid attention in the discussion. Shortly, the teacher could manage the class after watching the movie.
Finally, the application of movies in the fourth meeting helped the students focusing in learning narratives, they understood the text easily. It was proved that all students got opportunity to speak up in the class.
In this stage, the researcher looked back to the instruments; the result of tasks and tests, observation sheets, field notes and interviews. The development of the students’ speaking skill at the second cycle indicated that the movies as media in teaching English gave contribution to improve their speaking skill. The average score was 71.4 in cycle 2. The improvement was significant. So the result of the observation sheet, field notes and interview could explain why there was an improvement of students’ speaking skill.
Besides the activity that had been done by the researcher and the students in this cycle, there were some notes that should be considered by the researcher in using movies as media. The class average score of students speaking skill achieved the standard minimum score. The collaborator observed that the researcher did all activities that had been prepared in the lesson plan. The researcher also attended the students’ activity in the class. The students in using movies in learning English were active in the second cycle
because all students got opportunity to watch and discuss the story together which gave the contribution in improving their speaking skill.
In conclusion, using movies could improve the students’ speaking skill. There were some points that could be explained from using movies in listening class. Firstly, the students were fully motivated to join the activity. In fact, they understood the story from the movies in the class. Then they can improve their vocabulary. Therefore, they understood the narratives easily and joined the discussion after watching the movies.
Secondly, the students were active and spoke up in the class, and reduced noisy students that might be occurred during the class. Thus, the students were given two activities in one time. Therefore, they paid attention to the story. This activity helped them to express anything in English easily.
Based on the finding of this research, which was taken from the activities of two cycles of this action research, it can be concluded that teaching and learning process by using movies gave improvement toward the students’ speaking skill. It is supported by Stewart’s idea (2006), he says movies can entertain the viewers and solve some problems in learning English such as speaking, writing, lack of speaking skill, the lack of vocabulary, the lack ability in reading, lack of grammar, and etc.
In addition, based on the observation, the students joined the activities and participated actively in the class. They were excited and interested in learning narratives by using movies. In line, Kusumarasdyati (2004) in her research states that the students become motivated in learning English by using movies. The movies made the students became active and easier in comprehending and expressing the material.
This research also revealed that there were some factors that influence the improvement on the students’ speaking skill at the third semester of Early Childhood Education Department of STKIP Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai Riau.
The several factors are material, media, classroom activities, classroom management, and teacher strategy and teacher approach.
The first factor that influenced the changes of students’ speaking skill was material. The material increased the students’ interest, challenged them in listening the spoken narratives. The material was also suitable with the curriculum. In this case, the material was not only narrative text, but also three kinds of vocabulary: noun group, time words, and action verbs, simple past tense. According to Cavanagh (1998) and Sabet (2011), teaching narratives should be supported by vocabulary and grammatical form which are appropriate with the level of the students. This finding of the research was supported by Clark (1989), the material considered many aspect in order to fulfilled its role in learning process. The material should be authenticity, realism, context and focus to the learner.
The second factor was the media used in speaking class. In teaching and learning in the classroom, the teacher taught narratives by using movies as the media. In this case, the teacher played the movies by using some devices, such as laptop, projector, and sound system to support the teaching and learning process. There is improvement on the students’ speaking skill after learning English by using movies. This finding of the research is supported by Kusumarasdyati (2004) states that movies can develop the students’ speaking skill and stimulate
their imagination simultaneously. It also increased the students’ motivation in learning English. After class, the students often showed their great progress in learning English.
The researcher has chose movies for them and set the learning activities to improve the students’ speaking skill. The data that were gotten from the observation sheet, field notes and interviewed showed that using movies made the students not being bored in speaking class. It also helped the teacher in teaching English because the media guided the teacher to achieve the purpose in the classroom. It was easier for the teacher to handle the material and helped the students in increasing their motivation in teaching and learning process. The media helped the
teacher not to spent more energy to explain the material and attract students’ attention. Besides that, avoided students’ boring. It is supported by Trianto (2010) who says that the benefits are the first, the material will be clearer for the students. The second, the teacher will use various teaching methodology in the classroom. The third, the students will be active in doing many learning activities. The forth, the students will be interested in teaching and learning process.
The third factor was classroom activities. The variation of the classroom activities and classroom management. The classroom management was done by the teacher to create good situation where students learned and studied comfortably. This finding of the research was supported by Jones (1997), an effective classroom management includes several areas in teaching learning process. It should be based on good understanding of the current research and theory; it had to build strong relationship among the teacher and the students because the relationship can create a comfortable classroom. The classroom management that was created by the teacher was good, the teacher was already to help and guide the students in teaching learning process.
The fifth factor was the teacher’s strategy in teaching and learning process. Based on the observation and interview, it found that the teacher’s strategy was good in helping the students in expressing the spoken narratives by using audio visual in the classroom which is suitable with material and learning activities. In line, Adam (2001), the teaching strategy can be applied in condition those strategies should be suitable with the students’ condition, capability, and interest. Therefore, the teacher should be smart and creative in collecting, selecting and engaging the best strategy for the students. The students were more active and also helped the students in speaking English.
The last factor that influenced the change of students’ speaking skill was the teacher approach in classroom activities. In line with this finding, Brown (2001) said that the teacher approach was important roles in managing the class. It has several characteristic in language teaching, such as controller, director, manager, and facilitator and as resources. Because of that, the teacher approach had big influence in speaking English, the teacher approach motivated the students and helped them when they got problems in expressing sentences.
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